Linguistic Anthropology by Stanton Wortham

The basic question facing both participants in and analysts of verbal interaction
is: What does a given sign or utterance communicate about the events
being described and enacted (Garfinkel & Sacks, 1970; Silverstein, 1992; Erickson,
2004)? From a linguistic anthropological perspective, we cannot answer
this question unless we attend to form, use, ideology, and domain. p. 84

(emp. added)

As linguistic anthropologists have moved toward practice-based accounts
that attend both to language in use and to power relations, many have used
the concept of language ideology (Schieffelin, Woolard, & Kroskrity, 1998).
Silverstein (1985) describes an ideology as a metapragmatic model of language
and social relations that regiments particular uses. Because of indeterminacy
about what a sign might mean in context, speakers and hearers must draw on
models of linguistic forms and the speakers who typically use them. p. 91


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